New Turbo, Injectors And A Massive Fuel System

New Turbo, Injectors And A Massive Fuel System

When building your daily driver, on a budget, some things just have to be done multiple times. Generally speaking diesel performance goes step by step—tuning, more fuel, more air, then even more fuel and more air. This goes on until something breaks. For Project Grocery Getter, a 2003 6.0L-powered Ford Excursion, we did things a little backwards. We first took steps in the direction of prevention by studding the heads, adding a better EGR cooler and a better oil filtration system. A light FICM tune was also done to help wake up the engine. Satisfied with the results, now it’s time for the big fuel and air.

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Project Grocery Getter lives life doing what many oversized 4×4 minivans do: it’s a daily driven kid transport, weekend warrior mobile, and of course a grocery getter. The plan is to keep the 2003.5 Excursion extremely reliable and efficient for its day job, yet be able to change the tune and rip down a drag strip now and then with nearly 500 horsepower at the rear wheels.

Big Sticks

In the fuel department we decided to go with a set of 175/30 injectors from Warren Diesel. We opted to go with a set of new remanufactured injectors modified by Warren Diesel as opposed to having them re-work our aging stockers. With more than 150,000 miles on them, we felt it was a good time to swap them out for new. The set Warren Diesel sent us flow 175 cc with a 30-percent-over nozzle. Warren Diesel performs multiple modifications to their injectors to increase their flow and efficiency. First, they machine the intensifier piston inside the injector to allow for a higher fuel flow (see sidebar on page 56 for more info on the 6.0L’s unique injectors). They then plug the spill ports, which helps lessen oil consumption. This in turn
allows for the use of a stock high-pressure oil pump (HPOP). Plugging the spill ports also allows for higher injection pressure and ultimately better efficiency.

All internal parts are lapped to create perfect tolerances, which equal better reliability and overall performance. Last but not least, Warren Diesel uses 100-percent new nozzles built to their specifications. These nozzles are a six-hole design, which creates better fuel atomization compared to the OEM eight-hole design. These larger sticks will require an upgraded fuel system to supply them. They will also require custom tuning, which Warren Diesel can supply. We’ll be doing both a larger fuel system and playing with a few custom tunes in the next issue of Diesel World.

Stage 2 Turbo

The addition of more fuel means more air is needed to burn it, so we gave Charlie at KC Turbos a call. Charlie has multiple 6.0L turbochargers available for the 6.0L all the way up to the Stage 3, which has nearly a 68mm compressor wheel and will provide 40-45 psi of boost. Keeping our goals in mind, he recommended his Stage 2 VGT turbo for our application. KC Turbo’s Stage 2 charger for the 6.0L Power Stroke has an 11-blade, 64mm billet aluminum compressor wheel which utilizes extended tip technology. This combo was chosen for multiple reasons: it’s a 100-percent bolt-on charger.

1 & 2 Meet Hector Lezama from Bud’s Diesel. He’s a factory-trained technician and will be doing all the hard work installing the Warren Diesel 175/30 injectors and the KC Stage 2 Turbo while we sit back and look over his shoulder.

3A & 3B Lezama started gaining access to the injectors, first by removing the
intake tubing all the way back to the turbo.

4 & 5 The degas bottle (coolant reservoir/expansion tank) was completely removed from the vehicle. The hardest part here is accessing the hose clamps below the unit.

6 The FICM (Fuel Injection Control Module) is mounted on the driver-side valve cover and needs to be removed. The FICM had already been flashed in the past with an 80-hp tune. To run correctly, we’ll have to change this tune to work with the new parts.

7 After moving some wires aside, Lezama pulled the valve cover bolts using a
¼-inch air ratchet, and removed the valve cover.

8 With the valve cover off, the high-pressure oil rail could be drained and removed. After unplugging its supply (the braided stainless line) and removing the retaining bolts, the rail was left to drain for a minute before being pulled off the head.

9 Lezama used a special tool (a 12-point 19mm socket also works well in a pinch) to free each individual injector electrical plug from the rocker box.

10 Once the retainer was unbolted the injectors pulled out easily by hand with just a slight twist, wiggle and pull to free the O-ring seal.

11 The stock injectors (left) next to the new 175/30 injectors from Warren Diesel.

12 After making sure the injector bores were free of any contaminants and “surgically clean” (as Bud’s Diesel’s Hector Lezama puts it), Lezama then lubed the new injector O-rings with some assembly lube and installed the new 175/30 injectors from Warren Diesel in the heads.

It supports 570 horsepower; and will still spool quickly enough with low backpressure to be used safely for light towing (10,000 lbs. or less). 570 horsepower with 38 lbs. of boost should get us extremely close to our 500-rear-wheel horsepower goal.

13 Lezama’s tip: Use a little assembly lube on the O-ring and a door panel tool or small pry bar to push the injector plug back through the rocker box.

14 Lezama moved on to the passenger side after torquing the injectors, replacing the oil rail, valve cover and the rest. The procedure here was no different than the driver’s side other than needing to remove the aftermarket coolant and oil bypass
filters.

15 KC Turbo’s Stage 2 variable-vane charger came next.

16 With the majority of the parts off to swap the injectors, pulling the turbo only required the removal of a few more parts, including the intercooler tubes seen here.

17 Once the intercooler tubes were off, Lezama immediately cleaned the oil from the boots. Oily boots will more often than not end up slipping off under high-boost situations. Cleaning them prevents this from happening.

18 Removing the up-pipe and downpipe clamps is the most tedious step. Lezama used multiple pry bars to free each individual piece of these V-band clamps. He then left a pry bar in the downpipe (seen here) to space it away and aid in removal of the turbo.

19 This V-band clamp is worn out. Lezama pointed out that where the T-bolt is secured was starting to open up. Eventually this will separate, causing an exhaust leak. Bud’s Diesel had a new one in stock, so we replaced it as they recommended.

20 The turbocharger could be removed after pulling the three mounting bolts plus the oil supply and return lines.

21 Side by side, the OEM GT37VA next to the Stage 2 Turbo from KC Turbos.

22 The stock GT3782V turbo (right) is a variable-vane charger made by Garrett and has a 58mm compressor wheel. The KC Turbos Stage 2 unit (left) is variable vane as well and features an 11-blade, 64mm single-plane billet compressor wheel with a 10-blade, 72.5mm by 66.4mm Inconel turbine wheel. The porting around the inlet is there to smooth airflow to the compressor wheel and stop turbo surge.

23 Our Stage 2 KC Turbo came as a brand new unit. So all mating surfaces were perfect and all the sensors/actuators were brand new.

24 Lezama dropped the charger into its new home after lubing up the oil return O-ring in the valley to aid in installation.

25 The turbo is secured using the three mounts seen here. They have alignment pins to ease installation. Very early 2003 6.0L engines used a different turbo than all other years so be sure to order the correct one for your 6.0L.

26 Securing the downpipe (seen here) and up-pipe connections were much easier going back together. Again, Lezama used all-new clamps on these V-band connections (technically speaking, the downpipe has a Marmon flange, with a V-band flange welded to the turbo. But the same clamp is used for both connection types.).

27 Lezama primed the turbo by hand with some fresh oil before installing the oil supply line.

28 KC Turbos included with the turbo all gaskets needed to install the turbo. It’s nice to know that everything you need (outside unforeseen circumstances like our stretched V-band clamp) comes included.

29 Lastly, Lezama reinstalled the coolant degas bottle, crankcase breather lines and the rest. The turbo install is complete.

30 We’re not done with this 6.0L Excursion yet. Project Grocery Getter will be getting a new massive fuel system, gauges, tuning, exhaust, intake and more. Plus, we’ll be doing some real world road testing as well as a few 1/8- and 1/4-mile passes to see how she does all-out. Keep an eye out for Project Grocery Getter in the next few issues of Diesel World.

Bud’s Diesel
With our new parts in hand we headed down to Bud’s Diesel in Southern California for the install. We’ve been going to Bud’s for years. Owner Bud Anderson is a factory-certified Ford technician with decades of experience working on all diesel engines, but especially Power Strokes. There are only a few people we call on when we need Power Stroke help. Bud’s is on that short list.All said and done, the install took roughly three days including the fuel system.

Stay tuned for more on this build in the next issue of Diesel World. By the time we’re done, Project Grocery Getter will be the envy of kids (and their parents) everywhere.

Inside The 6.0L HEUI Injector

The 6.0L and 7.3L Power Strokes use Hydraulic Electric Unit Injectors (HEUI) that are fairly unique in the modern diesel era. The injectors don’t rely on a single high-pressure pump like a common-rail Cummins or Duramax engine does. HEUI injectors are fed a 60-psi supply from the tank but the injectors themselves create the high pressure needed for complete combustion using a supply of high-pressure oil.

1 The 6.0L HEUI injector broken down.

2 The oil pressure from the HPOP is fed into the injector from this solenoid. The earmuff-looking electrical piece, top left, contains two electromagnets, which open or close the spool valve (bottom center) to control the flow of oil. High-pressure oil then pushes down on the intensifier piston (right).

3 The injector base assembled. Here’s the intensifier piston poking out the top of the injector base. The solenoid would normally be mounted on top covering it up.

4 Fuel supply from the head enters through these small screens.

5 The injector nozzle—where all those moving parts finally get some work done. Look closely and you can see the six honed-out nozzle holes.

How It Works

Both fuel and oil run through the heads in separate galleries, to each injector. The oil pressure (around 500- 600 psi at idle and 4,000 psi max) is fed from the HPOP (high-pressure oil pump) to the top of the injectors; fuel (at 60 psi) is fed from the tank via the stock electronic lift pump, towards the bottom or tip of the injectors. Simply put, each injector is equipped with two pistons, one for fuel (a.k.a. “plunger”), and the other for oil (a.k.a. “intensifier piston”). When the solenoid atop an injector is opened electronically it feeds high-pressure oil to the first piston, forcing it down onto another piston, which then pressurizes the fuel at 7.1 times the pressure of the oil. Injection pressure can be as high as 28,400 psi but should never drop below 3,100 psi. Once above 3,100 psi, the nozzle needle lifts to inject fuel into the cylinder.

Note From Bud’s Diesel:

Before starting the truck it’s a good idea to change the engine oil. The last thing you want is to pump nasty contaminant-filled oil through a brand new turbo and set of injectors. Also, once started, let the truck idle for at least an hour. This will help remove air from the system. If you don’t get all the air out of the system before driving the truck, premature injector failure may occur. It’s more common than you’d think. DW

SOURCES

KC Turbos Incorporated
www.KCTurbos.com

Warren Diesel
866-276-2511
www.WarrenDiesel.com

High Speed Performance
336-617-4580
www.HighSpeedPerformanceShop.com